In the United States, the terms "freedmen" and "freedwomen" refer chiefly to former slaves emancipated during and after the American Civil War by the Emancipation Proclamation and the 13th Amendment. Slaves freed before the war (usually by individual manumissions, often in wills) were generally referred to as "Free Negroes" or free blacks.
Yet the Reconstruction period (1865–77) was one of disappointment and frustration for African Americans, for these new provisions of the Constitution were often ignored, particularly in the South. After the Civil War, the freedmen were thrown largely on their own meagre resources. Landless and uprooted, they moved about in search of work.
African Americans and Education During Reconstruction: The ? For much of the period between 1868 and 1899, this modest building near the site of the Civil War Battle of Antietam served as both a church and a school. The history of the schools housed in Tolson’s Chapel illustrates how African Americans across the former slave-holding states created and sustained schools during Reconstruction.
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